Where forest & forestry resources come together for all users!

Sponsored by the Michigan Forest Association and Michigan State University Extension

Degrees of Alienation
Article #200, September 2013
By Bill Cook

   It’s important, for many reasons, to maintain the health of forests and other plant communities.  Part of the definition of health is species composition. 
   Alien species displace native species and disrupt ecological processes.  Alien species are also called non-native or exotic species.  They are one of the greatest threats to regional forests. 
   Increasingly common, the term invasive is used, although invasive is more about behavior than nativity.  Native species can also become invasive, when invasive is described as disruptive to natural systems. 
   Most alien species are not considered “bad”.  Over 40,000 aliens have been introduced to North America.   Honey bees are alien to North America.  So are most of our food plants and animals.  Apple trees are alien.  Many common species in our environment were not here prior to European arrival.  Most have had little negative impact to natural environments or have been beneficial to human beings.  On the other hand, some species have grown to become significant problems.
   Many damaging species are here to stay.  A few will have (and have had) serious negative impacts.  Some species will become naturalized with our native species.  Other species can be eradicated, at least locally, or kept at more tolerable levels.  Success stories exist, especially when new invasions are small. 
   Many of the wildflowers that we appreciate in the summer are alien species that specialize in occupying disturbed sites, such as roadsides and old fields.  Queen Anne’s lace, daisies, dandelion, most clovers, chicory, birds-foot trefoil, sow thistle, mullein, and tansies are not native to North America, but we see them frequently. 
   “Helpful” plants such as St. Johnswort and self-heal are aliens.  Spotted knapweed and purple loosestrife have grown epidemic and very invasive.  Buckthorn, garlic mustard, and autumn olive can prevent regeneration of forest species. 
   Removing well-established alien species from the landscape is quite difficult. 
   Alien species are not restricted to plants.  The importance of alien and damaging insects and diseases is growing.  Emerald ash borer, beech bark disease, oak wilt, and gypsy moth are a few better known and advertised examples. 
   Emerald ash borer, alone, has cost about 1.7 billion dollars and has changed the face of urban forests.  Loss of black ash will convert many forested wetlands to open wetlands, which may be overcome with alien species.  Beech bark disease will remove an important source of food for many northern forest species and an iconic tree from the forests.  Oak wilt has killed many oak woodlands across Michigan and Wisconsin, and the disease is spreading. 
   On the horizon, we need to carefully watch for Asian long-horned beetle, hemlock woolly adelgids, and thousand cankers disease.  Michigan State University has a new bulletin on these three species.  Undoubtedly, the future will reveal additional threats.  Vigilance is a key defense. 
   Why are alien species so bad?  Again, most of them really aren’t.  However, some of the problems caused by certain aliens include the loss of native species, decreased ecological stability, economic loss, reduced habitat quality, regeneration failure, and altered water and nutrient cycles.  The threats are growing.  Complicating and related factors involve smaller and smaller ownership size, human activities, climate change, and lack of management. 
   Learning more about these biological threats to forests and other plant communities can help in the battle to identify and eradicate, or control, these species.  One source is the Michigan Invasive Plant Council.  Another source is the Michigan Natural Features Inventory, which has a range of materials.  Associate with local groups that work towards healthier plant communities. 
   One of the best tools available to managers and scientists is having thousands of citizen eyes watching for species that are out of place.  Many new infestations are discovered by non-specialists.  Early detection often leads to eradication.  If you see something that seems out of the ordinary, be curious and find out what it is.  Try contacting state agencies, conservation districts, Extension offices, conservation associations, and similar groups.  Most of the time, the situation will be something normal.  But you’ll never know until you ask. 

- 30 -


Bill Cook is an MSU Extension forester providing educational programming for the Upper Peninsula. His office is located at the MSU Forest Biomass Innovation Center near Escanaba. The Center is the headquarters for three MSU Forestry properties in the U.P., with a combined area of about 8,000 acres. He can be reached at cookwi@msu.edu or 906-786-1575.

Prepared by Bill Cook, Forester/Biologist, Michigan State University Extension, 6005 J Road, Escanaba, MI  49829
906-786-1575 (voice),  906-786-9370 (fax),  e-mail:  cookwi@msu.edu

Use / reprinting of these articles is encouraged. Please notify Bill Cook.
By-line should read "Bill Cook, MSU Extension" Please use the article trailer whenever possible.

Michigan State University is an affirmative action equal opportunity institution.  The U.S. Department of Agriculture prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital status or family status.   (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.)

This website is maintained by Bill Cook, Michigan State University Extension Forest in the Upper Peninsula.  Comments, questions, and suggestions are gratefully accepted. 
Last update of this page was 5 November, 2018



This site is hosted by School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science at Michigan Technological University.

Michigan Tech